OOP is an acronym for Object-Oriented Programming. It is a design method to describe a data structure’s data type and the operations to manipulate this data.
We can think of the data structure as an object that possesses both functions and data along these lines. What’s more, we can derive relationships between object A and object B. For instance, an object can take on attributes of other objects through inheritance.
The Basic OOP concept
A few basics are what you need to get you booted into coding. The following are a few definitions to help you grasp a better understanding of object-oriented programming.
- Abstraction: This is an OOP concept dedicated to handling complexities by concealing unnecessary details of a program from its users. The user is only presented with the relevant details allowing for efficient design and implantation of a program.
- Objects: The individual entity that is made up of variables, functions, and procedures to manipulate data. An object is also an instantiation of a class.
- Class: A collection of objects. Classes describe the mutual attributes of different objects belonging to them. It also serves as a template for generating or instantiating definite objects within a program.
- Encapsulation: This is the step by step process that combines data and methods that work on that data within a single unit, for instance, a Java class. This concept is also applied in hiding the internal representation of an object from its environment. To access the data, rules state that you have to go through the functions of that class.
- Information hiding: Obscuring details of a function or an object. Information hiding is a powerful tool as it reduces intricacy.
- Inheritance: It is a way through which new objects can take on the attributes of existing objects. This feature represents the “is a” connection between diverse classes.
- Interface: The codes and languages that applications use to refer to each other and with the hardware. It’s also a programming syntax responsible for imposing certain attributes of an object.
- Polymorphism: Basically means many forms. It is an OOP technique that provides a single interface to multiple entities of diverse types. A message can be made to take different display forms through polymorphism. This is akin to a person behaving differently in different situations.
- Procedures are sections of programs tasked with specific jobs.
Why OOP is important in programming
You might be wondering why to take so much interest in objects and classes. The simple reason is that unlike procedural programming techniques, object-oriented programming enables developers to create modules that remain unchanged even if a new data type is added.
They need to create a new object and grant it properties of previously created objects through inheritance. This makes OOP easy to modify.
Unified Modelling Language is a standardized language for modeling systems whereby developers can visualize, construct and document their systems using integrated sets of diagrams.
What is C++?
It is basically the C language with added object-oriented features. It is popular for graphical applications.
Java Programming Language
Though it has a syntax similar to that of C, Java portrays platform independence as programs can run on any Java Virtual Machine.
There are lots of online resources for learning OOP. For instance, offers 30 hours of language-agnostic class to high school and middle school students. Likewise, some training schools like institute focuses on UML while teaching OOP based on a specific programming language where the focus is to approach OOP from a project management standpoint.
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