This module is a comprehensive introduction to internet searching methods and strategies. Assuming no previous understanding, the module will give an explanation for methods to find what you are “genuinely” seeking out in place of masses of other exciting hyperlinks. Searching is simple; locating what you are seeking out can on occasion be hard. Hopefully, the recommendation under will make your subsequent Web Search powerful. While 3 quarters of the Web customers of the sector cite finding records as their most important use of the Internet, that identical percentage also cite their incapability to find the facts they need as their largest frustration. The cause of this module is to help you quit that frustration. Staff at ICIMOD additionally indicated, during schooling desires evaluation, Internet Searching be taken up as a concern subject matter.
Part A: Tools and Effective Searching
1. Overview of the World Wide Web
2. Before Starting the Search
3. Tools for Searching
4. Which Tools ought to you operate
5. Building your Search Strategy
6. Keywords Searching
7. Phrase Searching
eight. Boolean search
9. Advanced Search/Field Searching
10. Checking the Results
eleven. Useful to Know
Part B: References
Part C: Practical Exercise – Lets Start Searching!
1. Overview of World Wide Web
The Internet is not just about information; it’s far and a worldwide network of folks that share statistics, engage and speak. From the point of view of its customers, the Internet is a big series of resources–people, statistics, and multimedia.
The Internet is an inter-linked community of networks, the World Wide Web is the “digital” internet linking these networks. Each device (or group of machines – example ICIMOD computers related to the internet via V-SAT) on a network has a completely unique “deal with” from which it could request and acquire data. A Web “browser” is a patron software that requests records from different computers which briefly characteristic as “servers” sending the data upon request. The Web has existed for a long time, however, its exponential use and boom started in 1995 when graphical Web browsers (like Netscape, Internet Explorer) have become extra famous. At ICIMOD, Internet Explorer is the widely used web browser. With these graphical internet browsers, the Internet especially internet became “consumer-friendly”, and people commenced to broaden and submit web sites and internet pages. The hyperlink is the gain of the web pages. The hyperlink is the element in a web page that links to some other page/location on the same internet site or to a completely exclusive website. Typically, you click on on the hyperlink to comply with the hyperlink.
There are billions of web websites on the internet. With billions of net pages online, you may spend a lifetime browsing the Web, following links from one page to any other. Amusing possibly, however now not very efficient in case you are after some precise statistics. One of the most important issues we revel in is the difficulty of locating focused/particular data. Where do you start from? Searching
Searching the Internet requires ability, luck and a bit bit of art.
2. Before Starting the Search
The easiest way to locate records is whilst you realize a web page Internet address or URL (Uniform Resource Locator) inclusive of ICIMOD home internet site. You can locate these addresses on business cards, email signatures, or newspapers. Simply type the URL in the browser’s address container and hit the key. If you do now not recognize the URL, you will have to discover it by searching the Internet. In many instances, a simple seek on the call of an organization inside maximum search engines like google will return an immediate hit on their internet.
Three. Tools for Searching
There are many seek gear to be had:
· Web Directories / Virtual Library / Library Gateways
· Search Engines / Meta-search engines like google
· Deep net databases
‘Web Directories’ (challenge directory) are the repositories of beneficial internet websites organized right into a hierarchical, problem-based totally structure. They require human beings to view the man or woman Web website and determine its placement into a subject category scheme or taxonomy. Once completed, certain key phrases related to the one’s websites can be used for searching the directory’s information banks to discover Web web sites of interest.
For searches which can be effortlessly labeled, such as providers of shades, the quest directories have a tendency to provide the most regular and well-clustered effects. This advantage is usually confined entirely to the one’s category regions already used in the taxonomy with the aid of that service. Yahoo, for example, has about 2,000 classifications (apart from what it calls ‘Regional’ ones, which can be a duplication of the primary class areas with the aid of geographic region) in its contemporary taxonomy. The Open Directory Project has nearly 590,000 classes and 5,142,051 web sites. Some widely used web directories are:
Open Directory Project (ODP) – the most important net directory
The virtual library is a web directory that consists of enormously selective links, chosen in most cases through librarians. Use library gateways whilst you are seeking out excessive first-class records websites on the Web. You may be pretty certain that those websites were reviewed and evaluated by way of problem professionals for his or her accuracy and content material. Popular digital libraries include:
Librarians’ Index to the Internet
Internet Public Library
The WWW Virtual Library
Funded by way of Danida and Sida and hosted with the aid of the Institute of Development Studies, Sussex, Eldis offers a large collection of sources for 40 development-related sectors
SD Gateway consists of over 1200 documents referring to sustainable development, NGOs
Mountain Forum’s Online Library, for articles and courses on global mountain troubles
Search engines index every painting within all or a part of documents. When you pose a query to a search engine, it matches your question works in opposition to the facts it has in its databases to offer a listing of feasible documents assembly your request. Search engines are great for searches in more tough subject matter areas or the ones which fall into the gray regions between the issue classifications used by directories. But, engines like google are silly, and can handiest give you what you ask for. You can every now and then get heaps of documents matching a query. Also, at best, even the biggest serps best index a small fraction of the Internet’s documents.
It is critical to remember the fact that while you are the user of a search engine, you are NOT looking the whole net because it exists at this second. You are without a doubt looking a part of the web, captured in a hard and fast index created at an in advance date.
Popular search engines presently are:
Meta-search engines do no longer crawl the web compiling their personal searchable databases. Instead, they search the databases of a couple of sets of individual serps simultaneously, from a single site and the use of the equal interface. Meta-searchers provide a short way of locating out which engines are retrieving the fine outcomes for you for your search
Deep internet (or invisible net or hidden net databases) is the name given to pages on the World Wide Web that aren’t listed by using conventional search engines like google and yahoo. It consists of pages which aren’t linked to through other pages, including Dynamic Web pages. Dynamic Web pages are basically searchable databases that deliver Web pages generated simply in reaction to a question.
Four. Which Tools You Should Use
If you are seeking out unique facts, use search engines (e.G. Paper presented on biodiversity in 2005 ABCD convention. You could additionally use a keyword look for difficult to understand subjects, move-category searches (e.G. Mountain and GIS, environment and soil)
If you’re looking for trendy statistics on popular subjects, use subject (web) directories. You can also use in cases, in which you do not understand any keywords associated with a topic
Use virtual library/Library gateways while you are searching out high first-rate facts websites on the Web. You can be pretty positive that these websites had been reviewed and evaluated by means of situation specialists for his or her accuracy and content.
If you’re seeking out a completely unique or obscure seek time period or in case you want to make an in-intensity analysis of what is out there on the Web on a selected problem, then use meta search engines.
If you’re looking for actual-time information or for dynamically changing content such as the ultra-modern news, telephone e-book listings, available airline flights, and so forth., then use deep databases (invisible or deep internet.)
five. Building Your Search Strategy
Your capability to discover the facts you are seeking for on the Internet is a feature of the way specific your queries are and the way successfully you use search offerings. Poor queries return bad outcomes; true queries return brilliant effects. Search outcomes are only as desirable as the question you pose and how you search. There is no silver bullet.
The statistics experts at the University of California at Berkeley propose a graduated method to Web looking. Here is their stepwise collection of steps to follow, which we generally endorse for starting searchers:
1. ANALYZE your subject matter to determine wherein to begin
2. Pick the right beginning place
3. Learn as you go & VARY your method with what you learn
4. Don’t abate in any strategy that does not paintings
five. Return to preceding strategies higher knowledgeable.
As you benefit experience, you could begin reducing out the center steps. By the time you are doing actual heavy lifting together with your queries, you without a doubt most effective want spend some time first getting your query proper after which cutting to the lowest line with a full Boolean search the usage of terms and 3 or so principles related through the AND operator and multiple search engines like google.
Following those suggestions, right here are endorsed steps to imminent the Internet search project:
· Spend time BEFORE your search to research what it’s miles you’re seeking out
· Use nouns in your queries – the who/what, whilst, wherein, how and why; keep away from conjunctions, verbs, adverbs and adjectives
· Use key phrases on the right “stage” of specificity: unique, but not overly restrictive
· Use phrases wherein natural; they’re your most powerful weapon
· User-based (“Boolean”) syntax, especially the ‘AND’ operator
· Constrain your search by way of the usage of or 3 related, but narrowing, principles for your query
· BUT, normally, preserve overall query duration restricted to 6 to eight key phrases most
· Use superior search options and uniqueness functions whilst suitable
· For tough searches, use simplest serps that assist Boolean syntax, or gear or metasearchers that do
· For specific topic searches, don’t forget search engines like google tailored to the one’s subjects
6. Keywords Searching
Despite all of the gobbledygook approximately such things as ‘Boolean’ and implied operators, the maximum hard – and essential – aspect of a seek are the keywords used in your query. Mastering the principles at the back of a search isn’t as complicated as may also seem at the beginning. The first few searches are perhaps tough, however, once executed, the nuggets in the back of your data request start becoming clear. Like using a bike for the first time, it does take a few exercise.
Before typing the keywords, take a while and brainstorm relevant phrases. Create a listing of seeking terms. Write them down. A few seconds of brainstorming may want to save you mins or hours of retrieving inappropriate consequences.
What are the characteristics to search for at the same time as buying a diamond? You should underline the principle concepts, consequently – What are the characteristics to look for at the same time as purchasing a diamond. Select synonyms and variation phrases, if required- (pleasant, functions) (shopping for, procuring).
Formulate a question with simple concept/phrases first, e.G. Search phrases – “diamond shopping for manual” is well sufficient.
7. Phrase Searching
A very powerful manner to increase the relevance or precision of “hits” is to look as a word. In most cases without a doubt approach setting citation marks across the search terms. “net searching” is an extraordinary search than net searching in most search engines. What you are truly doing through searching as a phrase is the usage of the concept of proximity which issues the phrases’ bodily closeness to one another (this is, their proximity). A record with net looking happening near or subsequent to every other are more likely to be on course than a file with internet in the identity and searching buried within the textual content.
Find the quantity of list decreased from 30, one hundred,000 to 977,000 whilst using the word for searching the internet looking.
8. Boolean seek
Boolean looking is an implementation of Boolean common sense and set theory. Boolean operators, which include AND, OR and NOT are used to mix search units in a variety of methods and seem within Internet search engines in a number of disguises. A very quick evaluate:
Search phrase: cats and dogs or cats puppies
method locate internet pages wherein both phrases arise
Search word: cats OR dogs
manner discover web pages in which either term occurs
Search word: cats NOT puppies (use cats -puppies in Google as NOT is supported)
method find internet pages in which the term dogs appears however now not cats
Most web search engines like google have the capability to put in force those fundamental Boolean operators but can also present them in an exceptional way. You will almost continually need to visit an “Advanced” seek function to use genuine Boolean operators; but, you’ll be capable of searching the usage of implied Boolean using the symbols + (have to consist of) or – (exclude) from the “Basic” search interface.
Note: those Boolean operators are often presented as options like “encompass all the phrases,” (AND operator) “consist of any of the words,” (OR operator) and “exclude” (NOT operator).
While you might assume that search engines default to an implied AND (which means that if you input 2 search terms it returns files in which they BOTH occur) in truth this isn’t continually the case — a few serps default to the to start with unhelpful OR (it returns files in which EITHER occur)
Use an *, called a wildcard, to fit any word(s) in a phrase (enclosed in quotes) mainly with Google.
Search phrase: “Mountain * poverty”
manner locate net pages containing a word that starts with “mountain” observed by means of a phrase(s), observed by using “poverty”
Phrases that healthy include: “mountain assuaging poverty”, “mountain areas poverty”, “mountain regions remained in poverty”
9. Advanced Search / Field looking
Remember that a web search engine is only as good as its database and indexes. Databases are collections of facts prepared in a similar way; really positioned, this means they’re divided into fields that include the same statistics in each record. If facts are entered into a separate area you can retrieve it the use of its discipline label. This approach that in case you want to look by way of title, the quest engine seems in a special title index (or searches notations that imply that the time period happens in the name area) wherein it has amassed data from the field with the label title. Many keyword search engine also has an “advanced seek” option, additionally known as subject searching. This will permit you to specify in which keywords have to appear, allowing more control over the consequences.
Field looking is so outstanding due to the fact you can specify wherein to look in the web record; for instance, within the name handiest, or the URL fields. Field looking allows you to be very unique about where you want your terms to occur and consequently is a very effective device.
Field Searching is likewise the method used in searching databases. Particularly, websites sharing databases offer this as a seek device inside an internet site. For example, to search ICIMOD’s Library database or Mailing List Database or even FAO’s guides database, field looking is provided.
Nesting is the use of brackets with Boolean operators, to make your search query syntax extra significant and specific. For instance, pan pizza and either coke or ice-cream, and cheese
Simple simply type in “pan pizza” AND coke OR ice-cream and cheese. But, this syntax might be confusing to engines like google as it may be interpreted with many meanings – it is able to imply pan pizza and coke, or coke and cheese, so we use brackets to separate the blocks – “pan pizza” AND (coke OR ice-cream) and cheese. Just don’t forget your high college arithmetic.
10. Checking the Results
Now you have got a hard activity. After a search, you have to decide which of the search effects will take you to the most informative website. Your high-quality guess is to take a look at the identification and description of the webpage. Are they relevant for your seek? If yes, open the page. If not, test the following result, by means of scrolling down at the right facet of the browser.
To view a page you’ve got alternatives
1. Click on the name of the web page – although says “No identity” or “?????”. Place the cursor at the page name and the cursor will exchange to the picture of a hand. Usually the hyperlinks are in blue and underlined, however often they’re no longer.
2. The 2nd technique is to open the web page in a brand new browser window. Right-click on over the title of the end result. This produces a pop-up menu. Select “open (link) in a new window.” After checking the result, near the new browser window. You will nonetheless have the first window browser along with you seek.
If you use the primary approach maximum probable you’ll not use the lower back button to go lower back to the outcomes page, but instead you’ll genuinely close the window, losing the quest web page altogether.
What to do whilst you get TOO MANY consequences
It’s commonplace to receive millions of outcomes, often unrelated to the quest. To acquire more applicable results you’ll need to refine or even reconsider the search. Here are a few ideas that will help you refine your search:
Add one or greater descriptive words on your question.
Use terms. Enclose two or greater phrases which could appear in genuine order within double citation marks.
Use Boolean Operator as you want to be precise or Exclude phrases with NOT or implied Boolean.
Use the hunt device’s “advanced seek” features. Limit you’re seeking via language, date or by discipline searching: name, URL, link and many others.
What to do while you get TOO FEW consequences
Sometimes you will get messages like “Your seek did now not in shape any files” or “No pages had been discovered containing your question” or “No outcomes.” Other instances you may get few or inappropriate results. What should do you do:
· Check the spelling of the query. Some serps robotically stumble on misspelled phrases and could show the correct spelling. Just click on the recommended phrase or phrases.
· Delete the least crucial phrase from the question.
· If you used a seek terms try eliminating the double quotes.
· Use more trendy phrases, alternate spellings, plural paperwork or synonyms. “Google™ has currently introduced a new superior seek function that allows you to now not only look for a selected keyword however additionally for its synonyms. Just location the “~” (tilde) mark without delay in front of the keyword in your seek to question. For instance, “UN ~vacancies” not most effective searches for “UN vacancies”, but also for “UN process possibilities”, “UN employment opportunities” and “UN Jobs”
Evaluating the Results
First of all, do not accept as true with the entirety you examine at the Internet. Be cautious what you trust. Governmental corporations, instructional institutions, libraries and prestigious guides are the most reliable sources of information. Be circumspect with data discovered on non-public websites stored in loose hosts.
Tips on evaluating a domain useful resource
1. Is the internet website online posted by means of an authoritative supply?
2. Is the writer a identified expert within the discipline or difficulty vicinity?
Three. Are the facts applicable, credible and accurate? It does no harm to pass take a look at to a few extra, dependable assets.
4. Is the website modern-day and lately updated?
Five. Does the website online have an expert “appearance and experience”: structure, format, shade scheme, navigation menu(s), etc.? Are there spelling, grammar or punctuation mistakes?
6. Does the website online have contact information including a postal address, smartphone or e-mail?
Rest confident that locating facts on the Web is by no means a query of good fortune. Instead, it is the result of a radical expertise of how search tools paintings, blended with mastering the art of making a centered search query. Searching the Web is not hard. Like any challenge, you, in reality, need to press the proper buttons.
Author: Deependra Tandukar
This article has been peer-reviewed via Mr. Sushil Pandey, ICIMOD.